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排水技术改变了世界
送交者:  2022年05月23日08:51:02 于 [世界时事论坛] 发送悄悄话

席琳

2022-5-21


记得以前的历史教科书上是说,中国古代鲧的儿子大禹,对洪水进行疏导,治理好了黄河。


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两百年前的1821年,一个名叫蒋江森(1791-1880)的苏格兰农民移民到了美国的纽约州,带来了欧洲相对先进的农业技术。他在日内瓦附近买了一块地,给这块地施肥,也发明了一种方法,用陶瓷瓦管对农田排水,从而改变了美国。

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这一技术,被广泛推广应用,尤其是工业化和美国工程兵技术的采用,从而使得美国从一个撮尔小国,变成一个农业大国。蒋江森和他的妻子玛格丽特的贡献,不容小视。


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若干年后,纽约一个富商的儿子,名叫罗伯特斯万(1826-1890),酷爱园艺和农业生产,他娶了蒋江森和玛格丽特的千金小姐,也叫玛格丽特,二人买了一个更大的农场,依次而建立了一个农业试验站,是美国最早的农业试验站之一,后来发展成了康奈尔大学的一部分。


  • Robert Swan was born in 1826, the fifth child of New York City merchant Benjamin Swan and his wife Mary. According to a family history written by Robert’s youngest brother Fred, he attended a private school in New York City and went to work at about 15 as a clerk in the dry goods business. He was promoted to be a salesman and spent several years working in business in the area that is today the Financial District. Due to poor health and under the advice of a doctor, he gave up the mercantile business to become a farmer. He spent two years living and learning with John Johnston, then a farmer well known for his innovative methods.


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  • Swan followed the practical methods he learned from Johnston—lime, manure, and tile drainage—and was a successful farmer. In 1853, Robert was awarded a silver cup by the New York State Agricultural Society for Best Drainage. He won the Society’s Premium for Best Wheat Farm in the State in 1858. Beyond winning its awards, Swan was active in the New York State Agricultural Society. He was president in 1881 as the Experiment Station was being established.


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这可是美国最早的农业试验站的年度报告,虽然比英国洛桑试验站的年度报告,晚了将近40年。


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