繁体中文  
 
世界商讯
 · 九阳全新免清洗型豆浆机 全美最低
 首页 |
 
版主:bob
 · 九阳全新免清洗型豆浆机 全美最低
 
面对现实吧,北欧国家不是社会主义
送交者:  2021年02月20日09:47:30 于 [世界时事论坛] 发送悄悄话

艺萌

新民粹主义最常见的一个谬论就是说,他们的模式是“北欧的”,而这些国家是“社会主义行得通”的成功榜样。当本人在欧洲保守派与改革主义者联盟最近举办的一次晚宴上,向芬兰财政部长佩泰里·奥尔波提及这点时,他简直不敢相信。


无偿征用、大规模加税、挪用储蓄和置增长模式于政治控制之下,这些便是民粹主义者捍卫的东西。情况如同委内瑞拉,这个他们曾经交口称赞的榜样,从伯尼·桑德斯到欧文·琼斯或者科尔宾,再到乔姆斯基,直到该国发生崩溃。然后呢,他们便转向“北欧模式”这个谬论。


你知道干预主义者忘记了北欧国家的什么东西吗?它们是传统基金会经济自由指数的领头羊,按照世界银行的说法,也是做生意最方便的地方之一。


私有财产受到法律保护,公民的储蓄完全属于个人,不受政府的任何控制。所有北欧国家都在减少“税收楔子”,企业税率也比美国低,直到美国最近进行大规模减税为止。


国家没有规定或者强加学校教育和医疗保健,其中大部分具有分摊支付方案。它仅在私人与国有服务之间的选择方面发挥管理与促进的作用。


它们是私有银行业的佼佼者,后者资助了绝大部分的经济活动,比例高达80%。它们在吸引资本、保障法律安全和私人投资方面也居领先地位。


北欧国家同样在对低效国有实体进行私有化,应用世界级私营公司的治理经验,以及保护半国有公司如挪威国家石油等中的股东利益方面名列世界前茅。


公共部门并不规定增长模式,或者经济应该怎样加以管理的方式。这些均出自私有部门,它们资助了逾60%的研发经费,而政府在公共服务的管理中,借鉴了私有部门最好的效率与透明实践。另外,公务人员不存在终身制,而与这些民粹主义者捍卫的政治控制恰好相反。


北欧国家成功完成了国有部门的私有化,从电信业到电力业的发电和配送,即使邮政服务和部分林业也私有化了。


它们拥有一个灵活性领先世界的劳动力市场。


在这些国家里,私人教育通过学校的学券制得到鼓励,而非强制加入公立学校。


还存在一个事实,把在一个居民少于纽约的国家里使用的模式复制到美国,几乎不具可行性。最重要的区别在于,选择、自由和私人创新是北欧国家的基石和社会支柱,而民粹主义者们无一想要实现这些。


不,社会主义不是北欧国家的模式,而把这些国家当作他们“模式”的干预主义者,脑子里有一套截然不同的制度:国家控制。


本人向你们推荐尼马·萨南达吉写的《斯堪的纳维亚的非例外论》这本书,或者《经济学人》里的《他们成功的秘密》一文。


北欧国家的成功之处在于采用亲市场措施,私有化低效部门,以及保障私有财产、财富创造和法律与投资的安全。


北欧国家明白,离开了欣欣向荣的私有部门、经济自由和私人投资,便不存在什么福利制度,而公共部门存在的目的是促进而非吸收国家的经济活力。他们明白,离开了繁荣昌盛的私有部门,也不存在什么税收回报。他们明白,因为他们过去犯过错误,枝节横生的国家干预只会导致失败。这便是他们拒绝社会主义的原因。


北欧国家不存在什么社会主义。一个在经济自由、自由企业、私有财产保护、私有银行业和企业家精神提倡等诸多方面的领军人物,是社会主义的对立面。干预主义者巴不得我们把资本主义社会里的福利制度同社会主义混为一谈。


社会主义是一种政治和经济理论,它捍卫的是生产、分配和融资等手段应当由国家所有和控制。北欧国家“不”是社会主义。它们是带福利制度的资本主义社会,跟大多数资本主义国家一样。顺便提一句,美国也一样。它们是第一批搞明白以下这个事实的国家,一个众所周知的事实:社会主义从来行不通。


本文于2018年6月8日发表在米塞斯学院网站上,作者为经济学家和基金经理丹尼尔·拉卡列。


附:一位挪威裔美国人的思考:

“Why won't the Nordic Model work for the United States?”

为何北欧模式不适合美国


Erik Norgaard

 Norwegian American. Proud of Nordic capitalism.



“Why won't the Nordic Model work for the United States?”

I’m Nordic. Norwegian more precisely. But I live in America.

You’ve likely heard that Nordic Capitalism is not socialism. If not, here’s someone more knowledgeable on that topic:

Speaking at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, Danish PM Lars Løkke Rasmussen told students "I know that some people in the US associate the Nordic model with some sort of socialism. Therefore I would like to make one thing clear. Denmark is far from a socialist planned economy. Denmark is a market economy,”[1]

Here’s my thoughts:

Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland have slightly different forms of what Americans call the Nordic Model. Since I’m Norwegian, I’ll compare to Norway’s version.

Here’s what it would take in America:

  1. Near univeral patriotism for one’s country. Norway has had its hardships throughout history. Starvations, slavery, invasions, wars, corruption, etc. But taking pride in your country, regardless of historical events is paramount. Nordic countries are a thousand years older than America. It wasn’t always ABBA, lutefisk and Nordic nice.


  2. Increased immigration controls. In order to enjoy taxpayer funded benefits, you must maintain strict adherence to immigration laws. In Norway, controlling immigration is much easier than in America: frigid climate, extremely rough terrain, smaller communities and accessing through seaports and airports has rigorous checking. If you’re not a citizen, you can’t stay long.

  3. Reduce amount spent assisting other countries. America spends an inordinate amount of money policing the world and helping other countries. Sure it’s in our best interests, but if you want all the benefits of the Nordic Model you have to finance it somehow.

  4. Government controlled oil and mineral rights. That’s where the majority of funding comes from: the North Sea. Even then, politicians realize that it won’t last forever. So, the Norwegian Sovereign Wealth fund was created to invest in businesses…ala capitalism. It has over US$1 trillion in assets, including 1.3% of global stocks and shares, making it the world's largest sovereign wealth fund.[2]

  5. Smaller Population. Less people to care for. Less land mass to traverse. Thus easier to provide resources for a smaller group of people living in less square kilometers.

  6. Stong work ethic. Most every Scandinavian person descended from a farmer. Working is ingrained in our soul. We do it for the good of our families and for the love of our country. It’s a habit.

  7. Guns. Yep, Nordic people enjoy their right to self defense. And, if Norway was ever invaded again, then the people can defend their homeland.

  8. Required military/civil service. Want free education? Not so fast. You’ll have to serve your country regardless of gender.

  9. High personal Taxes. Low corporate taxes. Personal Income Tax Rate in Norway is expected to be 38.52 percent and nearly every citizen is taxed more than in America. Sales tax VAT is 25%. Corporate tax rate of 24%. Better than in America[3].

The likelihood of American politicians convincing the populace that all these (and more) structural challenges are required to sustain the Nordic Model in America is highly unrealistic.

It’s more likely that the horrific Marxist / socialist model that’s destroyed many civilizations would be adopted in America.

I love Norway. Absolutely love it. But my family emigrated to America to have better life

0%(0)
0%(0)
标 题 (必选项):
内 容 (选填项):
实用资讯
北美最大最全的折扣机票网站
美国名厂保健品一级代理,花旗参,维他命,鱼油,卵磷脂,30天退货保证.买百免邮.


一周点击热帖 更多>>
一周回复热帖
历史上的今天:回复热帖
2020: 网传迟浩田的战争离我们不远,它是中华
2020: 俄罗斯政府文件:新冠病毒非天然形成
2019: 川普高筑墙,可能会笑到最后。
2019: 七绝 题照(644)配饗庆丰陪上皇
2018: 偶为啥不看春晚
2018: 中美开战,中国必输。
2017: 天文专家为何会把三点一线看成两点一线
2017: 继中国之后,又一国家取缔法轮功 
2016: 袁世凯之问:建成共和要几个世纪? zt
2016: 中国工商银行涉嫌海外洗钱是咋回事 zt
 
Jobs. Contact us. Privacy Policy. Copyright (C) 1998-2021. CyberMedia. All Rights Reserved.