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Pratt & Whitney PW1000G
送交者: oldfarmer 2018年02月12日04:12:50 于 [世界军事论坛] 发送悄悄话

Pratt & Whitney PW1000G

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

PW1000G
ILA Berlin 2012 PD 140.JPG
TypeGeared turbofan
National originUnited States
ManufacturerPratt & Whitney
First run2008
Major applicationsAirbus A320neo family
Bombardier CSeries
Embraer E-Jets E2
Irkut MC-21
Mitsubishi Regional Jet
Program cost$10 billion[1]
Unit cost$12 million[2]

The Pratt & Whitney PW1000G is a high-bypass geared turbofan engine family, currently selected as the exclusive engine for the Bombardier CSeriesMitsubishi Regional Jet (MRJ), and Embraer's second generation E-Jets, and as an option on the Irkut MC-21 and Airbus A320neo. The project was previously known as the Geared Turbofan (GTF), and originally the Advanced Technology Fan Integrator (ATFI). The engine is expected to deliver reductions in fuel use and ground noise when used in next-generation aircraft. The PW1000G engine first entered commercial use in January 2016 with Lufthansa's first commercial Airbus A320neo flight.[3]


Contents

  [hide


Development[edit]

mockup with compressor and turbine cutaway

Pratt & Whitney first attempted to build a geared turbofan starting around 1998, with the PW8000.[4] This essentially was an upgrade of the existing PW6000that replaced the fan section with a gearing system and new single-stage fan.[5] After several years of development the PW8000 essentially disappeared.[6]

Soon afterwards the ATFI project appeared, using a PW308 core but with a new gearbox and a single-stage fan. It had its first run on March 16, 2001. This led to the Geared Turbofan (GTF) program, which was based around a newly designed core jointly developed with German MTU Aero Engines.

In addition to the geared turbofan, the initial designs included a variable-area fan nozzle (VAFN), which allows improvements in propulsive efficiency across a range of the flight envelope.[7] However, the VAFN has since been dropped from production designs due to high system weight.

In July 2008, the GTF was renamed PW1000G, the first in a new line of "PurePower" engines.[8] Pratt & Whitney claims the PW1000G is 16% more fuel efficient than current engines used on regional jets and single-aisle jets, as well as being up to 75% quieter.[9]

Flight testing[edit]

Flight testing on a 747SP, in #2 position

The engine was first tested on the Pratt & Whitney Boeing 747SP, then since October 14, 2008 on an Airbus A340-600 in Toulouse on the number two pylon.[10] Testing of the CSeries bound PW1524G model began in October 2010.[11] The PW1500G engine successfully achieved Transport Canada type certification on February 20, 2013.[12] The A320 engine, the PW1100G, was first tested on the 747SP on 15 May 2013.[13]

The first flight test on one of its intended production airframes, the Bombardier CS100, was on September 16, 2013.[14] The first flight of the Airbus A320neo followed on September 25, 2014.[15] The PW1100G engine successfully achieved FAA type certification on December 19, 2014.[16] The fourth variant of the engine, the PW1900G, first flew on November 3, 2015 from Mirabel in Canada fitted to the Boeing 747SP test aircraft.[17]

Production[edit]

under a CSeries wing with cowlings open

At the start of its production in 2016, each GTF was costing PW $10m to build, more than the sale price, but should become less than $2m per engine.[18] MTU provides the first four stages of the high-pressure compressor, the low-pressure turbine and other components. In October 2016, MTU started to deliver the engine assembled on its line to Airbus.[19]

In November 2016, Pratt had fixed the issue of engine start time and wanted to deliver 150 powerplants by the year-end, 50 fewer than originally planned. This was because of low yield of Fan Blades when less than one-third were passing inspection at the start of the year compared to 75% success for the latest. 350–400 engine deliveries are targeted for 2017. Fuel-burn performance is 16% better than the IAE V2500 baseline, on target, and even 18% better in best cases.[20]

The troubled introduction is making customers choose the CFM LEAP which won 396 plane orders compared to 39 from January through early August 2017 to power the A320neo: 46% of the GTF-powered A320neos were out of service for at least one week in July 2017 compared with just 9% of those using the LEAP, while its market share fell from 45% to 40% in 2016 but 1,523 planes (29%) are still undecided and Pratt have a 8,000 engine orderbook including 1,000 non-Airbus planes.[21]

On 24 October 2017, a 99.8% dispatch reliability is attained and Pratt remains on track to deliver 350 to 400 engines in 2017, as 254 have been delivered including 120 in the third quarter, but 12–15% are diverted for spares as the carbon air seal and combustor liners are wearing out fast, requiring engine removals to change the part.[22]

Ultra high-bypass version[edit]

In 2010, Pratt & Whitney launched the development of an ultra high-bypass version, with a ratio significantly higher than the PW1100G's 12.2:1 for the A320neo, to improve fuel consumption by 20% compared to a CFM56-7 and reduce noise relative to the FAA’s Stage 4 by 25dB. In 2012, wind tunnel tests were completed on an earlier version of the fan and in 2015, 275h of testing were completed on a fan rig. More than 175h of ground testing of key components were completed in October 2017, on a shorter duct inlet, a part of the nacelle and a fan with lower-pressure ratio blades, significantly fewer than the 20 blades of the PW1100G. The US FAA Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and Noise (CLEEN) program sponsors the tests, with is technologies to be validated in a flight test campaign. It could power the Boeing New Midsize Airplane in the mid-2020s and Airbus' response, and would compete against the Rolls-Royce UltraFan and a CFM LEAP higher-thrust version.[23]

Design[edit]

By putting a 3:1 gearbox between the fan and the low-pressure spool, each spins at its optimal speed: 4,000–5,000 RPM for the fan and 12,000–15,000 RPM for the spool, the high-pressure spool spinning at more than 20,000 RPM. The 30,000 hp gearbox is designed as a lifetime item with no scheduled maintenance other than changing oil.[24] The A320 PW1100G fan has 20 blades, down from 36 in the CFM56-5B.[25]

As the higher bypass ratio and gear leverage a higher propulsive efficiency, there is less need for a high performance engine core than the CFM LEAP, leaving a larger fuel burn gain margin of 5–7% over the next decade, averaging 1% per year combined with gear ratio tweaks.[26]

Operational history[edit]

Introduction[edit]

Powering the Lufthansa first A320neo

The first delivery to a commercial operator, an A320neo to Lufthansa, occurred on January 20, 2016.[27] As of early August 2017, Pratt was supporting 75 aircraft: 59 Airbus A320neos with PW1100Gs and 16 Bombardier C Series with PW1500Gs.[28] In January 2018, it reached 500,000 flight hours on a fleet of 135 aircraft flown by 21 operators.[29]

Starting times[edit]

The first delivery was to Lufthansa instead of Qatar Airways due to rotor bow, or thermal bowing, due to asymmetrical cooling after shut-down on the previous flight. Differences in temperature across the shaft section supporting the rotor lead to different thermal deformation of the shaft material, causing the rotor axis to bend; this results in an offset between the center of gravity of the bowed rotor and the bearing axis, causing a slight imbalance and potentially reducing the tight clearance between the rotor blade tips and the compressor wall. All production standard engines now feature a damper on the third and fourth shaft bearings to help stiffen the shaft and data from engines in service and under accelerated testing is expected to gradually reduce engine start times. According to P&W President Bob Leduc, "by the time we get to June (2016), it will be down to 200 seconds for start time and by the time we get to December (2016) we will be down to 150 seconds for start time".[30]

In an earnings briefing on 26th July the CEO of Pratt & Whitney's parent company United Technologies Gregory Hayes stated when asked about the start up issues on the PW1100G-JM; "On the technical stuff, I would tell you it is in the rearview mirror. The start time with the software drops have been pretty well addressed".[31] Airbus group chief Tom Enders said while releasing Airbus's 2016 first half financial results that the first upgraded "golden engine" would be delivered to Lufthansa in early August 2016.[32]

Initially, the PW1000G start up sequence took about seven minutes, compared to one to two and a half minute startups on the similar CFM56 and IAE V2500 engines; hardware fixes and software upgrades decreased the time required by a little over a minute, and cooling down both engines at the same time saved slightly over two minutes, for a total reduction of three and a half minutes. These modifications were included on new-build engines, as well as retrofitting existing units. Pratt & Whitney continued to improve start up times, with fuel-nozzle modifications and oil filling procedure changes expected to save another minute when introduced by the end of 2017.[33]

To create a better seal and reduce cooling time by 1 min, a cubic boron nitride coating was applied to the 11 integrally bladed rotors tips: the A321neo production engines start times will be similar to the V2500.[34]

Engine removals[edit]

IndiGo A320neo waiting for its engines

As IndiGo and Go Air operate in humid, hot, polluted and salty environment, 42 engines were prematurely removed from those companies' aircraft by 24 February, with more to come and after certain warnings mandatory checks and possible repairs are due after only three flight hours instead of ten : 28 engine removals were due to an air seal leakage in the third bearing, allowing metal particles to enter the oil system, triggering detectors. Pratt & Whitney discovered these issues in 2015 and revised the design in 2016 after the 160th engine with improved bearing compartments and damping for the third and fourth bearings to offset the rotor-bow, with the repairs retrofitted on-wing after testing at Airbus and Pratt.[33] Boosting durability of the third bearing compartment air seal, the upgraded carbon seal package was certified on April 12 and can be retrofited over a typical night stop.[35]

Thirteen engine removals were due to borescope inspections revealing blocked cooling holes in combustion chamber panels, apparently due to saltier air, and Pratt & Whitney developed and tested a more durable combustor design to address a tone problem, with the fix to be introduced in September.[33] Spirit Airlines reported that the bleed air system froze shut on occasion due to cold temperatures on four of its five A320neos, a problem also experienced by IndiGo, leading Spirit to impose a 30,000 feet (9,100 m) ceiling on their aircraft.[36] As Pratt troubles persists, JetBlue Airways has switched its first three Airbus A321neos in 2018 to A321ceos and will now take delivery of its first A321neos in 2019 among its order for 60.[37]

In 2017, IndiGo had to ground seven planes, two in May, four in June and one in July after, their engines out of service, waiting for upgrades: a lack of spare parts—grounding also All Nippon Airways and Hong Kong Express Airways A320s—has been compounded by a new Indian tax on goods and services impeding imports.[38] With removals without sufficient spare engines available, the airline had to ground as many nine jets on some days, operations disruptions are understood by Pratt & Whitney which struggles to fix glitches and sent compensation while design changes could take a year and sorting out the issue one and a half years.[39]

Groundings[edit]

In February 2018, after in-flight failures of PW1100G with its high pressure compressor aft hub modified – apparently problems of its knife edge seal, the EASA and Airbus grounded some A320neo familyaircraft until they are fitted with spares.[40] Later, Airbus decided to stop accepting additional PW1100G engines for A320neo aircraft.[41]

Applications[edit]

It has been proposed for the Sukhoi Superjet 130,[50] and the Rekkof Aircraft F-120NG (nl).[51]

Specifications[edit]

The PW1000 Family[52]
ModelPW1100G[53]PW1400GPW1500G[54]PW1900GPW1700GPW1200G



Fan Diameter81 in (206 cm), 20 blades73 in (185 cm), 18 blades56 in (142 cm), 18 blades



Bypass ratio12.5:112:19:1



Static Thrust24,000–35,000 lbf
110–160 kN
28,000–31,000 lbf
120–140 kN
19,000–23,300 lbf
85–104 kN
17,000–23,000 lbf
76–102 kN
15,000–17,000 lbf
67–76 kN
15,000 lbf
67 kN




CompressorAxial flow, 1 geared fan, 3 stage LPC, 8 stage HPCsame except 2 stage LPC



CombustorTalon-X Lean-Burn Combustor[55]
TurbineAxial flow, 2-stage HP, 3-stage LP



ApplicationA320neo familyIrkut MC-21CSeriesE-Jets E2 190/195E-Jets E2 175MRJ70/90



Service entryJanuary 2016201915 July 2016201820212020



Type Certificate Data sheet
ModelPW1100G[56]
PW1500G[57]PW1900G[58]




Length[a]3.401 m / 133.898 in
3.184 m / 125.4 in




fan case diameter2.224 m (87.566 in)
2.006 m / 79.0 in




weight2857.6 kg (6300 lb)
2177 kg (4800 lb)




Takeoff thrust30G/33G: 147.28 kN / 33,110 lbf
27G: 120.43 kN / 27,075 lbf
24G/22G: 107.82 kN / 24,240 lbf

19G: 87.96 kN / 19,775 lbf
21G: 97.73 kN / 21,970 lbf
24/25G: 108.54 kN / 24,400 lbf
21G: 22,550 lbf (100.3 kN)
23G: 23,815 lbf (105.93 kN)





Thrust-to-weight ratio3.85 – 5.26
4.12 – 5.084.7 – 4.96




See also[edit]

  • Related development

  • Comparable engines

  • Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. Jump up^ fan spinner face to aft flange

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ Guy Norris (Jun 2, 2017). "Boeing's NMA Poses Propulsion Puzzle For Engine Makers"Aviation Week & Space Technology.

  2. Jump up^ "JetBlue Picks Pratt Over CFM for Engines Valued at $1.03 Billion"Bloomberg. December 15, 2011.

  3. Jump up^ Spaeth, Andreas (25 January 2016). "Onboard Lufthansa's First Airbus A320neo Flight - Airways Magazine".

  4. Jump up^ Bill Sweetman and Oliver Sutton (June 1, 1998). "Pratt & Whitney's surprise leap"Interavia Business & TechnologyHighbeam Research.

  5. Jump up^ "Pratt & Whitney's next leap in engine technology"Aerospace Engineering Magazine Online. SAE International. 1998. Top 15 Technology Innovations.

  6. Jump up^ Robert Luedeman (April 17, 2006). "The Short Life and Untimely Demise of the PW8000"The Dougloid Papers.[self-published source?]

  7. Jump up^ "P&W readies for CSeries "third knob" engine testing"Flight Global. 23 February 2011.

  8. Jump up^ "Farnborough '08: Pratt & Whitney Launches PurePower Engine Family"Aero-News Network. Jul 14, 2008.

  9. Jump up^ Peter Coy (October 15, 2015). "The Little Gear That Could Reshape the Jet Engine"Bloomberg.

  10. Jump up^ "Airbus-owned A340 flies P&W geared turbofan engine"Flight Global. October 14, 2008.

  11. Jump up^ "Pratt & Whitney geared PW1524G testing underway"Flight Global. October 30, 2010.

  12. Jump up^ "Transport Canada Certifies Pratt & Whitney PurePower® PW1500G Engine for Bombardier CSeries Aircraft" (Press release). Bombardier. February 13, 2013.

  13. Jump up^ "IN FOCUS: Pratt completes first flight of PW1100G engine"Flight Global. 3 June 2013.

  14. Jump up^ "Bombardier's CSeries Aircraft Completes Historic First Flight"(Press release). Bombardier. September 16, 2013.

  15. Jump up^ "A320neo Completes First Flight"Aviation Week. Sep 25, 2014.

  16. Jump up^ "FAA Certifies PurePower® Engine for A320neo Aircraft" (Press release). Pratt & Whitney. December 19, 2014.

  17. Jump up^ "P&W launches engine flight test campaign for new Embraer jets"Flight International. 3 November 2015. p. 12.

  18. Jump up^ "Pontifications: GTF faces steep learning curve on costs". Leeham News. June 13, 2016.

  19. Jump up^ "MTU formally opens A320neo engine line"Flight Global. 21 October 2016.

  20. Jump up^ Guy Norris (Nov 28, 2016). "Pratt Sees Busy Year-End As It Targets GTF Catch-Up"Aviation Week & Space Technology.

  21. Jump up^ Rick Clough (22 Aug 2017). "Pratt's $10 Billion Jet Engine Lags GE by 10-to-1 on New Orders"Bloomberg.

  22. Jump up^ Stephen Trimble (24 Oct 2017). "P&W speeds up GTF deliveries, but considers new design changes"Flightglobal.

  23. Jump up^ Stephen Trimble (13 Oct 2017). "New tests move P&W closer to ultra-high bypass GTF"Flightglobal.

  24. Jump up^ "Bjorn's Corner: Engine architectures". Leeham News. 4 March 2016.

  25. Jump up^ Tim Wuerfel (May 26, 2017). "Flying The A321neo: Technology Upgrades Under The Skin"Aviation Week & Space Technology.

  26. Jump up^ Ernest S. Arvai (May 31, 2017). "An Update: GTF Engine from Pratt & Whitney"AirInsight.

  27. Jump up^ "Airbus Delivers A320neo to Lufthansa"Wall street journal. January 20, 2016.

  28. Jump up^ Sean Broderick (Aug 31, 2017). "Issues With Newest Engines Provide Early MRO-Proving Opportunities"Aviation Week Network.

  29. Jump up^ Joe Anselmo (Jan 11, 2018). "GTF Reaches 500,000 Service Hours"Aviation Week Network.

  30. Jump up^ "New P&W President Has 'Nothing To Hide' On GTF Starter Issue"Aviation Week. 16 February 2016.

  31. Jump up^ Thomson Reuters StreetEvents (July 26, 2016). "Edited Transcript of UTX earnings conference call or presentation 26-Jul-16"Yahoo Finance.

  32. Jump up^ "Airbus: Delivery of P&W 'golden' A320neo engine imminent"Flight Global. 27 July 2016.

  33. Jump up to:a b c Jens Flottau and Guy Norris (Mar 24, 2017). "Airlines Praise Airbus A320neo Performance, But Engine Issues Remain"Aviation Week & Space Technology.

  34. Jump up^ Mike Gerzanics (26 May 2017). "Flight test: A321neo stretches its legs"Flight Global.

  35. Jump up^ Guy Norris (Apr 20, 2017). "Pratt & Whitney begins A320neo engine seal upgrade"Air Transport World. Aviation Week.

  36. Jump up^ Benjamin Bearup (10 April 2017). "Report: Spirit A320neo Fleet Suffering PW1000G Engine Challenges"Airways Magazine.

  37. Jump up^ "JetBlue switches A321neos as Pratt troubles persist"Flight Global. 25 Apr 2017.

  38. Jump up^ Anurag Kotoky , Rick Clough , and Benjamin D Katz (13 Jul 2017). "Pratt Engine Fixes Prompt IndiGo to Ground Seven Airbus Planes"bloomberg.

  39. Jump up^ Anurag Kotoky (31 Jul 2017). "Pratt's Woes With Engines Spur Compensation to Biggest User"bloomberg.

  40. Jump up^ Stephen Trimble (9 Feb 2018). "In-flight failures prompt emergency call for P&W-powered A320neos"Flightglobal.

  41. Jump up^ Jens Flottau and Aaron Karp (February 10, 2018). "Airbus stops accepting PW1100G engines for A320neo aircraft"Air Transport World. Retrieved 2018-02-11.

  42. Jump up^ Jon Ostrower (30 Nov 2010). "Airbus set to launch A320 NEO"flight international.

  43. Jump up^ "Airbus offers new fuel saving engine options for A320 Family"(Press release). Airbus. 1 December 2010.

  44. Jump up^ Mary Kirby (13 Apr 2010). "P&W seals deal to begin design on GTF for Russia's MS-21"flight international.

  45. Jump up^ "PurePower PW1000G Engine"utc.com.

  46. Jump up^ "PurePower PW1700G & PW1900G Engines" (PDF)Pratt & Whitney.

  47. Jump up^ Ernest S. Arvai (February 6, 2013). "Embraer Launches E-Jet RE: Assessing the Impact". airinsight.com.

  48. Jump up^ "Pratt & Whitney Launches Geared Turbofan Engine with Mitsubishi Regional Jet" (Press release). Pratt & Whitney. 9 Oct 2007.

  49. Jump up^ Stephen Trimble (9 Oct 2007). "Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan engine selected to power Mitsubishi Regional Jet"Flight international.

  50. Jump up^ "Russia will start the production of Sukhoi SuperJet NG in 2019-2020". ruaviation.com. 2 August 2013.

  51. Jump up^ "Fokker 120 specifications"Rekkof Aircraft.

  52. Jump up^ "PW1000G"MTU.

  53. Jump up^ "Pratt & Whitney Unveils Higher Thrust PurePower Engine"(Press release). Pratt & Whitney. 20 May 2014.

  54. Jump up^ "PurePower PW1500G Engine" (PDF). Pratt & Whitney.

  55. Jump up^ Ernest S. Arvai (October 2, 2012). "Technical Analysis: The Core of the PW1000G Geared Turbo-Fan"AirInsight.

  56. Jump up^ "Type Certificate data sheet for PW1100G-JM Series Engines"(PDF)EASA. 23 November 2015.

  57. Jump up^ "Type Certificate data sheet for PW1500G Series Engines"(PDF)EASA. 5 Dec 2016.

  58. Jump up^ "Type Certificate data sheet E00090EN" (PDF)FAA. April 28, 2017.

External links[edit]


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  This engine has reliability - oldfarmer 02/12/18 (70)
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