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V-280
送交者: oldfarmer 2018月02月11日23:50:41 于 [世界军事论坛] 发送悄悄话
回  答: 直-20还没服役 美军新一代倾转旋翼机已开始高速试飞 赤松子5 于 2018-02-11 20:23:07

Bell V-280 Valor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

V-280 Valor
Bell V-280 HeliExpo 2016.jpg
A mock-up of a Bell V-280, exhibited at Heli-Expo 2016 in Louisville, Kentucky
RoleVertical lift aircraft
National originUnited States
ManufacturerBell Helicopter / Lockheed Martin
First flight18 December 2017[1]
StatusUnder development; flight testing

The Bell V-280 Valor is a tiltrotor aircraft being developed by Bell Helicopter and Lockheed Martin for the United States Army's Future Vertical Lift (FVL) program.[2] The aircraft was officially unveiled at the 2013 Army Aviation Association of America's (AAAA) Annual Professional Forum and Exposition in Fort Worth, Texas. The V-280 made its first flight on 18 December 2017 in Amarillo, Texas.[3]


Contents

  [hide


Development[edit]

On 5 June 2013, Bell announced that the V-280 Valor design had been selected by the US Army for the Joint Multi-Role (JMR) Technology Demonstrator (TD) phase. The JMR-TD phase is the technology demonstration precursor to Future Vertical Lift (FVL). The Army classified the offering as a Category I proposal, meaning it is a well-conceived, scientifically or technically sound proposal pertinent to program goals and objectives with applicability to Army mission needs, offered by a responsible contractor with the competent scientific and technical staff supporting resources required to achieve results.[4] JMR-TD contracts were expected to be awarded in September 2013, with flights scheduled for 2017.[5] On 9 September 2013, Bell announced it would team up with Lockheed Martin to develop the V-280. Lockheed will provide integrated avionics, sensors, and weapons to the aircraft. Additional partners were announced in the following months,[2] including Moog Inc. for the flight control systems,[6] GE Aviation for the engines,[7] GKN for the tail structure,[8] Spirit AeroSystems for the composite fuselage,[9] Eaton Corporation as the distributor of hydraulics and power generation systems,[10] and Astronics Advanced Electric Systems to design and manufacture power distribution systems.[11] Israel Aerospace Industries, the first international partner recruited for the V-280, will supply the nacelle structures, and Textron sister company TRU Simulation & Training will build a high-fidelity marketing simulator and desktop maintenance trainer.[12]

On 2 October 2013, the U.S. Army awarded a technology investment agreement to Bell Helicopters for the V-280 Valor tiltrotor under the Joint Multi-Role program.[13] Awards were also given to AVX Aircraft, Karem Aircraft, and a Sikorsky-Boeing team. JMR is not to develop a prototype for the next family of vehicles, but to develop technologies and interfaces. The TIAs give the four teams nine months to complete preliminary design of their rotorcraft, which the Army will then review and authorize the construction of two competing demonstrators to fly in 2017. While there is a potential for an early downselect, the four teams are focused on the 2017 flight demonstrations.[14][15] Each of the four teams received $6.5 million from the Army for phase I of the program, although Bell is investing an undisclosed amount of its own money.[16] On 21 October 2013, Bell unveiled the first full-scale mock-up of the V-280 Valor at Association of the United States Army 2013.[17]

On 11 August 2014, the Army informed the Bell-Lockheed team that they had chosen the V-280 Valor to continue with the JMR demonstration program. The Boeing-Sikorsky team offering the SB-1 Defiant was also chosen.[18] Announcement of the selections was officially made on 3 October 2014, and the teams will begin building technology demonstration aircraft for test flights beginning in 2017.[19] Bell unveiled a full-scale mock-up of the V-280 Valor on the floor at AUSA 2014 to showcase the configuration and design of the high-speed platform. It is focused on the infantry squad and is to handle much like a helicopter in terms of low-speed agility to have unprecedented pitch, roll, and yaw response for those operations. Roughly the size of the current medium-lift helicopter, the V-280 is designed to travel twice as fast and twice as far. Bell is pitching these capabilities for movement over vast areas like the Pacific; the program director said the need for forward arming and refueling points could be eliminated and that one FOB (forward operating base) in the middle of a country, such as Afghanistan, could cover the entire country.[20]

Although Bell sold its share in the AW609 program in 2011, Bell continues to work on the AW609 and considers commercial potential for the V-280, as a military mass production of 2-4,000 aircraft could reduce unit cost to commercially acceptable levels.[21][22] However in 2016, Bell preferred the 609 for commercial, and kept the V-280 for military only. Bell also stated that conventional helicopters were not part of Bell's military future.[23]

Lockheed Martin is on track to take over Sikorsky, and this has caused Bell and LM to redefine their relationship.[24]

Prototype[edit]

In June 2015, Bell Helicopter's subcontractor Spirit AeroSystems began assembly of the composite fuselage for the first prototype V-280 Valor,[25] which was delivered in September 2015.[26] Although the V-280 is initially planned for the JMR demonstration program, Bell does not anticipate much difference between it and a final FVL entry.[27] By January 2016, the V-280 demonstrator was 23 percent complete,[28]with the fuselage and wings mated together in early May 2016.[29]

The demonstrator aircraft began ground vibration testing in Amarillo during February 2017, with the aircraft reaching 95 percent complete.[30] It was undergoing ground testing in October[31] for a maiden flightplanned for later in the month or in early November.[32] Bell released a video on 18 December showing the first flight, the area around the pivots was blurred.[33]

Design[edit]

The V-280 is reported to be designed for a cruising speed of 280 knots (320 mph; 520 km/h) (hence the name V-280),[34] a top speed of 300 knots (350 mph; 560 km/h), a range of 2,100 nautical miles (2,400 mi; 3,900 km), and an effective combat range of 500 to 800 nmi (580 to 920 mi; 930 to 1,480 km). Expected maximum takeoff weight is around 30,000 lb.[35] In one major difference from the earlier V-22 Osprey tiltrotor, the engines remain in place while the rotors and drive shafts tilt. A driveshaft runs through the straight wing, allowing both prop rotors to be driven by a single engine in the event of engine loss. The V-280 will have retractable landing gear, a triple-redundant fly by wire control system, and a V-tail configuration. The wings are made of a single section of Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite, reducing weight and production costs. The V-280 will have a crew of 4 and be capable of transporting up to 14 troops. Dual cargo hooks will give it a lift capacity to carry a 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) M777A2 Howitzerwhile flying at a speed of 150 knots (170 mph; 280 km/h). The fuselage is visually similar to that of the UH-60 Black Hawk medium lift helicopter. When landed, the wing is in excess of seven feet from the ground, allowing soldiers to egress easily out of two 6-foot (1.8 m) wide side doors and door gunners to have wide fields of fire. Although the initial design is a utility configuration, Bell is also working on an attack configuration.[36][37][38]

Whether different variants of the V-280 would fill utility and attack roles or a single airframe could interchange payloads for either mission, Bell is confident the Valor tiltrotor platform can fulfill both duties; the U.S. Marine Corps is interested in having one aircraft to replace utility and attack helicopters, but the Army, which leads the program, is not committed to the idea and wants distinct platforms for each mission. Bell and Lockheed claim an AV-280 variant can launch rockets, missiles, and even small unmanned aerial vehicles forward or aft with no rotor interference, even in forward flight and cruise modes with the rotors forward.[27]

GE Aviation will manufacture the engines for the V-280, with the prototype (air vehicle concept demonstrator, or AVCD) using the General Electric T64.[39] The specific engine for the model performance specification (MPS) is unknown, but has funding from the Army's future affordable turbine engine (FATE) program.[7] The V-tail structure and ruddervators, made by GKN, will provide high levels of maneuverability and control to the airframe. It will be made of a combination of metals and composites.[8] Features in the interior include seats that wirelessly charge troops’ radios, night-vision goggles, and other electronic gear and windows that display three-dimensional mission maps.[40]

Special emphasis has been placed on reducing the weight of the V-280 in comparison to the V-22, which in turn would reduce cost. To do this, composites are used extensively in the wing, fuselage, and tail. Wing skins and ribs are made of a honeycomb-stiffened "sandwich" construction with large-cell carbon cores for fewer, larger, and lighter parts. Skins and ribs are paste-bonded together to eliminate fasteners. With these measures, costs are reduced by over 30 percent compared to a scaled V-22 wing.[41] Bell expects the V-280 to cost around the same as a AH-64E or MH-60M.[42] While the Osprey has a higher disk loading and lower hover efficiency than a helicopter, the V-280 will have a lower disk loading and longer wing for greater hover and cruise efficiency.[12]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ https://www.defensenews.com/breaking-news/2017/12/18/v-280-valor-flies/

  2. Jump up to:a b "Bell Helicopter and Lockheed Martin team on V-280 ValorAirFramer, September 9, 2013. Accessed: September 9, 2013.

  3. Jump up^ "Bell Helicopter Achieves First Flight of V-280 Valor"Heliweb Magazine. 2017-12-18. Retrieved 2017-12-18.

  4. Jump up^ Drwiega, Andrew. "The Generation Game" Air InternationalJanuary 2014, page 106. Accessed: 17 June 2014.

  5. Jump up^ Bell V-280 Valor Selected for Army’s JMR-TD Program - Bell press release, 5 June 2013

  6. Jump up^ "Moog to design, manufacture flight control system for Bell V-280 ValorAirFramer. Accessed: 11 October 2013.

  7. Jump up to:a b Bell switches engine supplier for next tiltrotor, chooses GE - Flightglobal.com, 16 October 2013

  8. Jump up to:a b GKN Aerospace to develop V-Tail for Bell V-280 Valor - GKN news release, 17 October 2013

  9. Jump up^ Spirit AeroSystems to build V-280 fuselage - Flightglobal.com, 21 October 2013

  10. Jump up^ Courtney Howard. "Bell Helicopter chooses Eaton hydraulics and power generation system for Bell V-280 Valor"avionics-intelligence.com.

  11. Jump up^ Bell Helicopter, Astronics Announce Cooperative Agreement - Asdnews.com, 5 May 2014

  12. Jump up to:a b Bell Adds To V-280 Tiltrotor Team For Army JMR Demo - Aviationweek.com, 14 October 2014

  13. Jump up^ "Army awards JMR-TD program technology investment agreement with Bell Helicopter for next-generation tiltrotor demonstratorAirFramer 8 October 2013. Accessed: 11 October 2013.

  14. Jump up^ Karem Unveils Variable-Speed Tiltrotor For U.S. Army JMR Demo - Aviationweek.com, 2 October 2013

  15. Jump up^ Army selects four companies for advanced rotorcraft concepts - Flightglobal.com, 3 October 2013

  16. Jump up^ Doubts Swirl around Army’s Next Generation Helicopter Fleet - Defensetech.org, 25 October 2013

  17. Jump up^ Bell unveils V-280 Valor mock-up - Flightglobal.com, 21 October 2013

  18. Jump up^ Army Picks Firms to Build Future Helicopter - DoDBuzz.com, 12 August 2014

  19. Jump up^ U.S. Army Selects Bell and Sikorsky/Boeing to Build Prototypes for Next Generation Helicopter Program - News.USNI.org, 3 October 2014

  20. Jump up^ Bell Touts New Tilt-Rotor High-Speed Helicopter - Defensetech.org, 14 October 2014

  21. Jump up^ Black, Thomas. "Bell Helicopter exploring civilian market for new tilt-rotor aircraftArchive1 Archive2

  22. Jump up^ Rohit Jaggi. "Helicopter market eyes civilian tilt-rotor models"Financial TimesArchived from the original on October 24, 2014. We’re talking 2-4,000 aircraft

  23. Jump up^ HELI-EXPO: Bell rules out future conventional military helicopter developments

  24. Jump up^ "Bell and Lockheed modify V-280 contract ahead of Sikorsky takeover"Flightglobal.comArchived from the original on 13 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.

  25. Jump up^ V-280 Valor: Bell Starts Building Joint Multi-Role Prototype - Breakingdefense.com, 19 June 2015

  26. Jump up^ "Spirit delivers first V-280 tiltrotor aircraft fuselage to Bell (+ video)"kansasArchived from the original on 2015-09-23.

  27. Jump up to:a b Bell sees V-280 Valor as common attack-utility platform - Flightglobal.com, 2 July 2015

  28. Jump up^ Bell preparing to affix V-280 wing as ‘Valor’ takes shape - Flightglobal.com, 20 January 2016

  29. Jump up^ Bell Helicopter mates fuselage and wings of first V-280 - Flightglobal.com, 4 May 2016

  30. Jump up^ V-280 Valor begins ground vibration testing - Verticalmag.com, 16 February 2017

  31. Jump up^ Prototype Bell V-280 VALOR up on the test pedestal at Bell Helicopter Plant in Amarillo, TX - Flightaware.com

  32. Jump up^ James Drew (Oct 3, 2017). "Bell V-280 Ready For First Flight"Aviation Week & Space Technology.

  33. Jump up^ Bell V-280 Valor achieves first flight - Vertical Magazine

  34. Jump up^ YouTube

  35. Jump up^ Huber, Mark. "Bell Applying 525 Technology to V-280AIonline, 3 August 2014. Accessed: 4 August 2014. Archived on 4 August 2014.

  36. Jump up^ "PICTURES: Bell unveils V-280 Valor"Flightglobal.com.

  37. Jump up^ "Bell unveils V-280 Valor tiltrotor concept for U.S. Army program"Aerospace Blog.

  38. Jump up^ Bell V-280 Valor Spotlighted at SOFIC - Defensemedianetwork.com, 23 May 2013.

  39. Jump up^ Warwick, Graham. "Speed vs. costAviation Week & Space Technology page 31, 25 August 2014. Accessed: 26 August 2014.

  40. Jump up^ Army May Pick Future Helo Designs This Summer - Defensetech.org, 5 May 2014

  41. Jump up^ Affordability Challenge In Pursuit Of Army JMR/FVL - Aviationweek.com, 25 August 2014

  42. Jump up^ V-280 fuselage delivery highlights focus on cost

External links[edit]

External images
 Full-size mock-up
 More mock-up photos by American Helicopter Society
 Prototype on test stand


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